Except for mountain chains in the north and west along the Norwegian border, the land is relatively flat.Half is blanketed by forests, while just under a tenth is farmed.
The language has been nationally standardized for more than a century, but regional variations in pronunciation persist. The many immigrant groups speak roughly two hundred languages, of which the largest first language is Finnish, which is spoken by about 200,000 persons.By the end of his reign in 1560 , Sweden was a relatively consolidated kingdom.The economy was predominantly agricultural, supplemented by iron and copper mining.During the next 250 years, Sweden fought wars against Denmark, Russia, Poland, and Norway.The nineteenth century brought peace, but poverty prompted mass emigration, particularly to North America. Sweden's egalitarian society builds on historical circumstances that favor a sense of solidarity.The partial relinquishment of sovereignty to the European Union (EU) is seen by many people as jeopardizing national integrity; renewed interest in the flag is one response to that situation. Stone, bronze, and iron tools were developed, and by the time of Tacitus there was trade with the Roman empire.
Bands of Vikings pursued plunder and commerce as they traveled by ship over the Baltic Sea and up Russian rivers, as well as into Western Europe, between 8 the many independent provinces began to be united into a single, loosely federated kingdom.
There are nearly 100,000 lakes, and a long, rocky coastline on the Baltic Sea.
These diverse landscapes are warmed by the Gulf Stream, creating a temperate climate.
Immigrants from non-Nordic countries are concentrated largely in urban areas, particularly Stockholm, despite government efforts to promote a more even distribution.
The indigenous Sami people number between 17,000 and 20,000. Most citizens speak Swedish as their first language and English as their second.
This made it unattractive to the rest of the population.